Media Mentions

COVID-19 shows why it’s time to finally end unpaid college internships

February 9, 2021   |   By Matthew T. Hora and Mindi Thompson, The Conversation

​From The Conversation

Unpaid internships are often seen as an important rite of passage for college students. And with good reason. Studies have found that students acquire new skills and networks that enhance their job prospects.

In the years just after graduating from college, students who have an internship are 15% less likely to be unemployed and earn 6% more than students who did not. Simply put, an internship is widely viewed as a “must-have” experience for college students.

However, as researchers who study how students transition from college and into the workforce, we note that it is clear that asking college students to work for free is problematic. We believe the value of unpaid internships is even more questionable due to the economic challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic.

Besides the legal and ethical questions of not paying people for their work, unpaid internships also favor students from affluent families. The reason is that they can afford to forgo a paycheck and the high cost of living in big cities such as New York and Washington, D.C., where many internships are located.
For some observers, like the legal scholar Jessica Curiale, unpaid internships have effectively created a “class divide.” This divide is due to the fact that low- and middle-income students often cannot afford to pursue unpaid internships, which adds to the challenges these students already face in graduating and gaining access to well-paying jobs

Class divide

But during a pandemic marked by an economy with continuing uncertainties and layoffs, these longstanding problems are even worse. Consider that students today must deal with the constant stress of a deadly virus. They also must face isolation wrought by constantly changing campus policies and online coursework.

On top of that, they must figure out how to pay for their grocery, rent and tuition bills.
At the same time, 40% of college students lost an internship, job or job offer in the spring of 2020. Also, nearly 60% of college students experienced food insecurity or homelessness in early 2020, worsening these two longstanding and widespread problems in higher education.

Pandemic problems

Making matters worse is the fact that many students will soon be graduating into an economy with high unemployment, which historically is linked to lowered prospects for earnings, advancement and future employment.

These problems are leading some students to worry whether their hard work and loans will result in not just their dream job, but any job.

Should the COVID-19 pandemic represent the end of unpaid internships? And if the answer is yes, then can government, employers and philanthropists fully fund all internships for students in college?
Some unpaid internships are technically legal if they are primarily an educational experience. But based on current conditions, we contend that the very notion of unpaid work is indefensible.

Ways to pay

This is no small problem. An analysis of 675,594 internship postings in 2019 revealed that 71% did not list any pay.

It could be that those postings simply lacked information about compensation in job descriptions. However, data from our national College Internship Study indicate that unpaid internships are prevalent. In our survey of 3,809 students at 13 schools, 43% of the student interns had an internship that was unpaid.

Research on unpaid internships also shows that these positions tend to be concentrated in certain majors and jobs. A University of Georgia study found that political science, journalism and human development majors were more likely to pursue unpaid internships than their counterparts in business or agricultural programs.

In our own research, we found that 76% of unpaid interns are women and that 55% intern at nonprofits.

Below we propose three ways to make paid internships more plentiful and available to all students.
As the nation’s largest employer and host to legions of interns in Washington, D.C., the federal government is in a unique position to send a message to employers across the nation that interns must be paid for their work.

1. Ban unpaid internships in the federal government

This is precisely what U.S. Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a Democrat from New York, intended when she announced in 2018 that all interns in her office would be paid US$15 an hour. The cause has since been taken up by other Capitol Hill offices and Pay Our Interns, a nonprofit that is seeking to increase paid internships.

To begin funding these government positions, Congress and the Biden administration could allocate funding in upcoming stimulus packages for college students to work as paid interns in federal, state and local government offices. Efforts should be made to find other sources of funding to pay interns over the long term.
Creating tax breaks and grant programs is especially important because many potential hosts of interns, especially small businesses and nonprofits, struggle to allocate staff time or resources to adequately support them, whether or not they’re paid.

2. Create tax breaks and grants for employers that hire student interns

With many state and local government budgets drained by the COVID-19 pandemic, federal funding may be required to allow state governments to convert unpaid positions in state agencies into paid internships.
Nonprofits regularly bring unpaid interns on board for weeks or months at a time. Many nonprofits have also been hit particularly hard during the pandemic.

3. Fund paid internships at nonprofits

Funding paid internships at nonprofits would help them weather increased demand for their services, while also reducing the overall number of unpaid positions.

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to worsen inequality in society, ending the use of unpaid interns is one way to help turn things around.

Renowned educational theorist, teacher educator to lead Georgia Southern 2021 Fries Lecture

January 14, 2021   |   By Georgia Southern University

Georgia Southern University

Gloria Ladson-Billings, Ph.D., renowned pedagogical theorist, teacher educator and author, will present the 2021 Norman Fries Distinguished Lecture, hosted by Georgia Southern University’s College of Education.

The lecture will take place virtually via Zoom on Feb. 8 at 7 p.m. The event is free and open to the public.

In her lecture, “Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Educating Past Pandemics,” Ladson-Billings will discuss how pandemics provide opportunities for revisioning and reimagining culturally relevant teaching practices. She suggests that instead of “getting back to normal,” it is time to get on to new and more equitable ways of educating all students and creating a more democratic society.

Ladson-Billings is the former Kellner Family Distinguished Professor of Urban Education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction and faculty affiliate in the Department of Educational Policy Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She also served as the 2005-06 president of the American Educational Research Association (AERA).

Ladson-Billings’ research examines the pedagogical practices of teachers who are successful with Black students. She also investigates critical race theory applications to education. She is the author of critically acclaimed books The Dreamkeepers: Successful Teachers of African American Children and Crossing Over to Canaan: The Journey of New Teachers in Diverse Classrooms, as well as numerous journal articles and book chapters.

Former editor of the American Educational Research Journal and a member of several editorial boards, Ladson-Billings’ work has won multiple scholarly awards including the H.I. Romnes Faculty Fellowship, the National Academy of Education/Spencer Postdoctoral Fellowship and the Palmer O. Johnson Outstanding Research Award. She is a 2018 recipient of the AERA Distinguished Research Award and was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2018.

The annual Norman Fries Distinguished Lectureship series began in 2001. It is funded by an endowment in honor of Norman Fries, founder of Claxton Poultry. In his more than 50 years of business, Fries built the company from a one-man operation into one of the largest poultry production plants in the U.S. Past Fries lecturers include David Oreck of Oreck Vacuums, South African apartheid author and lecturer Mark Mathabane, NASA director James W. Kennedy, Pulitzer Prize-winning author and historian Gordon S. Wood, Nobel Prize laureate William D. Phillips, Ph.D., bestselling author Susan Orlean, concussion expert Dr. Russell Gore, and PricewaterhouseCoopers Network chief operating officer Carol Sawdye. For more information, visit

Georgia Southern University, a public Carnegie Doctoral/R2 institution founded in 1906, offers approximately 140 different degree programs serving almost 27,000 students through 10 colleges on three campuses in Statesboro, Savannah, Hinesville and online instruction. A leader in higher education in southeast Georgia, the University provides a diverse student population with expert faculty, world-class scholarship and hands-on learning opportunities. Georgia Southern creates lifelong learners who serve as responsible scholars, leaders and stewards in their communities. Visit

Taking Action: Advancing Social Justice through the Transformation of International Schools

January 7, 2021   |   By Mariana Castro and Christina Nelson, The International Educator

The International Educator

As we write this from the University of Wisconsin—Madison, with its wintery snowcapped buildings and frozen lakes, we recognize that we are on the Native lands of the Ho-Chunk nation as well as other indigenous peoples. We begin by acknowledging the circumstances that led to their forced removal and honor who they are and their history. We also acknowledge our roles in this history and the circumstances that brought us to and keep us in positions of power.

As educators of international students, the acknowledgement of this history and our positionality is as important as reflecting on the feelings created by these acknowledgements. If our immediate reaction is guilt or irritation, then it will be impossible to use that recognition to compel us to do anything but feel shame and anger. When we recognize the allowances provided to us and the reasons behind them with the intention to have it shape our perspectives, we are more likely to see and interrupt the existing bias and institutional racism that impact our international communities.

In other words, acknowledgement is not enough. Reflection without action can lead to cynicism and to unrealized potential. Nevertheless, acknowledgement and reflection are the first steps towards action and a critical step in the journey of advocacy and activism in education. After all, action without reflection can become meaningless, lead to educator burn out, and even harm rather than help our students. For this reason, in this article, we invite you to engage with us in a specific type of reflection: critical reflection. Critical reflection imparts change in our practice, our beliefs, and our values. It pushes us to action.

We want to explore institutional racism in terms of the systemic barriers, the policies and practices that lead to unequal access and to exclusion. John A. Powell, professor of law and director of the Othering and Belonging Institute (University of California, Berkeley), suggests the opposite of exclusion is not inclusion. Inclusion can be interpreted as an invitation to participate in the dominant culture. For example, inclusion at a prestigious school or university might look like this: “You are welcome into our school as long as you behave like us, talk like us, be like us.”

Powell proposes belonging as the opposite of exclusion. Belonging “…means that your well-being is considered and your ability to help design and give meaning to […] structures and institutions is realized” (Powell 2012, p. 5). In other words, belonging invites the system to change to accommodate individuals and not the other way around. In an international school, for instance, an example of inclusion could be inviting students who are part of the local community and identifying curricular and pedagogical ways to support their learning.

To help us engage in critical reflection on the institutional racism present within our international communities, we encourage you to ponder these three questions with us:

  • Where do you see injustices masquerading as good intentions in your international school community?

Identifying injustices is not as simplistic as searching for a smoking gun. It is not a search for “individual bad actors intentionally doing bad things with nothing but racial animus on their minds” (Obasogie 2016). While it is important to identify the injustices that are clearly unfair, it is just as important to identify those injustices that may occur despite our good intentions. An example of this practice in international schools could be hiring only “native” English-speaking teachers from particular countries. The school may have the good intention of providing excellent role models for language. Nevertheless, the ideology behind “nativeness” in any language is flawed because languages thrive and look differently depending on the context in which they are used (e.g., English used in Sydney, Australia versus English used in Singapore). Hiring only “native” speakers from certain countries sends the message that only certain variations of English are valued, which excludes others, and creates injustices in our schools.

  • What do you notice about the explicit and implicit ideologies and cultural and social norms that are valued by your international school community?

Just as fish are not aware of the water in which they swim, so we, too, are unconsciously swimming in the waters of our own ideologies and cultural and social norms. Internalized racism and implicit bias show up in our norms and ideologies, pushing back against belonging, propagating inequality, and marginalizing others based on the ways they live and express themselves. In some schools, there are norms that regulate salaries and promotions. Some of these norms reflect the value placed upon languages, nationalities, and cultures. Since these norms are based on shared ideologies by dominant groups, they are rarely questioned, but they exclude and create social injustices in school communities.

  • Where do you see exclusionary decision making in your school communities?

We all make decisions based on our life experiences, using what we already know and often including others who share similar life experiences, similar thought processes, and similar procedures to reach decisions. By excluding people with diverse backgrounds in decision making, we also exclude potential innovative approaches and keep people with shared backgrounds and ideologies in power. Symptoms of exclusionary decision making might include curricula that do not leverage students’ languages and cultures as valuable resources or a population of predominantly white educators that have grown up with English as their dominant language.

As you engage in advocacy and in the fight for social justice in international schools, we encourage you to keep critical reflection at the heart of your practice. We hope the questions we posed in this article inspire you to continue this work and to transform our international schools into sites of belonging.

The Humanities & Business Education In an Economic Crisis: A Podcast

January 5, 2021   |   By Aspen Institute

Aspen Institute

As colleges weigh whether to welcome students back to campus this fall, they do so under the burden of financial pressures on higher education that have been building for over a decade. Among these pressures is a question increasingly prominent in media: Given the rising cost of tuition, what is the return on investment of a college education? Since the last financial crisis, this question has often been used to set up a false choice between liberal arts education and career-oriented education in STEM or business. In this episode, we’ll hear why this based on a flawed understanding of “employability” in evaluating higher education, and learn why moving beyond the binary of liberal arts vs business helps students and even, democracy itself.

The Business 20/20 podcast is a series that explores the changing relationship between business and society from 1999 to today. Each episode unpacks a key event—from the Seattle WTO protests to the global financial crisis and beyond—to find insights for the future. Produced by the Aspen Institute’s Business & Society Program and hosted by Michelle Harven.

Click here.

CCWT releases report on internships at HBCUs

January 5, 2021   |   By WCER Communications

WCER Communications

The Center for Research on College to Workforce Transitions, which is housed in the School of Education’s Wisconsin Center for Education Research, has published a new research brief examining internships at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

The report, titled “What do we know about internships at HBCUs? A review of the literature and agenda for future research,” was authored by UW–Madison’s Matthew Hora and Jacqueline Forbes, with Deshawn Preston of the United Negro College Fund.

Hora is the founding director of the CCWT, a research scientist at WCER, and an assistant professor of adult and higher education with the departments of Liberal Arts and Applied Studies, and Educational Policy Studies. Forbes is a doctoral student in the School of Education’s Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Analysis.

The research brief is described as follows in the abstract:

Internships and other high-impact practices (HIPs) that feature experiential learning are being increasingly promoted at Historically Black Colleges & Universities (HBCUs) as a way to support students’ career and academic success. In this paper we review the literature on what is known about HIPs and internships at HBCUs and how students’ racial identities have influenced interns’ experiences and outcomes. Our analysis finds little empirical research on internships at HBCUs and a general lack of in-depth and critical analysis on the ways that racial identity and the unique institutional cultures of HBCUs impact internships and Black student experiences. We then review contextual forces salient to Black interns’ experiences such as pervasive workplace discrimination, and theoretical frameworks that could inform future research on the ways that race, culture, institutional features and local “field effects” interact to shape student experiences and professional development. We conclude by outlining a research agenda for studying internships that foregrounds issues of racial justice, adopts elements of Bourdieu’s relational sociology, and investigates how the unique cultures of HBCUs influence how internships are designed, implemented and experienced.

The full research brief is available for download here.

Millions of ELL Students Face Prospect of In-Person, Federal Testing During COVID-19

January 5, 2021   |   By Corey Mitchell, Education Week

Education Week

Corrected: An earlier version of this article incorrectly included Florida among the states that develop and administer their own English-proficiency exams. Florida uses the ACCESS exam, which is developed by WIDA, one of the nation’s largest ELL testing vendors.

The disruption to in-school learning caused by the global pandemic this year has hit the nation’s 5 million English-language learners especially hard.

These students often lack access to dependable internet and technology, have non-English-speaking parents who struggle to support their remote learning, and have lost crucial access to teachers and classmates who have in prior years helped them develop their language skills.

Now, millions face yet another predicament: being asked to return to schools to take federally required English-language-proficiency exams amid the national surge in coronavirus cases.

That’s because WIDA, one of the nation’s largest ELL testing vendors, has concerns about the validity of a take-home test and students’ access to technology and the internet.

“My job as a test director, is to say that the score you get from our assessment means the same thing that it meant last year, that gives you the same information so that you can make a choice and decision about a student’s proficiency,” said H. Gary Cook, the senior director of assessment for WIDA. “I have a really hard time understanding how we can get a score that’s comparable to the score that’s not remote.”

Advocates in at least two states, Colorado and Florida, say it is unfair and potentially dangerous to ask English-learners—most of whom are Latino, Asian, and Black—to return to school buildings while COVID-19 cases sweep through their communities.

In both states, groups have urged the state education commissioners to postpone the start of testing season, which begins next month, until things are safe or make the test voluntary for families who are not yet comfortable with their children returning to school. National organizations for English-learner educators are also urging states to postpone or aggressively seek testing waivers.

In both states, groups have urged the state education commissioners to postpone the start of testing season, which begins next month, until things are safe or make the test voluntary for families who are not yet comfortable with their children returning to school. National organizations for English-learner educators are also urging states to postpone or aggressively seek testing waivers.

The reliance on in-person testing is “far too risky and potentially life threatening” and “raises serious discrimination concerns,” Jorge Garcia, the chairman and chief executive officer of the Colorado Association for Bilingual Education, wrote this month in a letter to Colorado state Education Commissioner Katy Anthes.

Despite the requests, the Colorado and Florida departments of education indicated this week they will proceed with testing. States run the risk of losing federal funding if they fail to enforce federal standardized testing requirements.

Under the Every Student Succeeds Act, states must use data from the exams to determine whether students are English proficient. Not offering the tests could hold back some students who are ready to exit English-learner status.

The push to delay or forego the English-proficiency testing is part of the larger debate this year over federal standardized testing requirements during the pandemic. Outgoing U.S. Education Secretary Betsy DeVos has declined to waive testing requirements for the 2020-21 school year after granting states a reprieve in the spring as schools shut down nationwide.

Taking Out the Guesswork

The English-proficiency exams are required by state and federal law for students in kindergarten through 12th grade. The scores indicate what level of English proficiency a student has reached and helps determine if students should stop receiving English-learner support services.

Determining whether ELL students still need support and when they no longer require it marks a critical juncture in their academic careers. Students who are deemed English proficient and pulled out of support services before they are ready can end up struggling in school. Taking longer to reclassifying students as English proficient could slow their academic growth and limit their access to higher-level courses that can prepare them for college and career opportunities.

States use the English-proficiency tests to take some of the guesswork out of the process.

Both states belong to the WIDA consortium, the organization that oversees the ACCESS for ELLs tests, which measure students’ English-proficiency in four domains—listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

WIDA, which provides the ACCESS tests to 36 states, several United States territories, and agencies such as the Bureau of Indian Education decided in September not to offer a remote option for the test. Altogether, the consortium tests 2.1 million students annually, slightly more than 40 percent of the nation’s English-learner enrollment.

The tests will not have remote options this year because WIDA and its member states were not confident that all students would be able to take the test in its current format, and that students would have equal access to technology at home to complete the exam, said Cook.

There were also concerns that English-learner students’ parents, some of whom are not proficient English speakers themselves, would be unable to help with setting up and proctoring the test, said Jonathan Gibson, the director of consortium and state relations department at WIDA.

There were also concerns that English-learner students’ parents, some of whom are not proficient English speakers themselves, would be unable to help with setting up and proctoring the test, said Jonathan Gibson, the director of consortium and state relations department at WIDA.
For younger students, a remote test would have been especially difficult to carry out: the entire test for kindergarten students is paper-only and the writing test is paper-only for students in 1st through 3rd grade.

TESOL International Association, an organization for teachers who specialize in working with English-learners, has also raised questions about the validity of tests given this year, especially the speaking portions: with students wearing masks in class, it could be more difficult for teachers to hear and understand what students are saying.

Advocates in Colorado argued that the test results may yield little useful information, given the amount of time that many English-learners have been away from in-person schooling.

The English Language Proficiency Assessment for the 21st Century (ELPA21) consortium, which includes eight states, also will not offer a remote option for its English-proficiency test.

The consortium determined that remote testing was not a constructive use of “time given the pandemic circumstances,” Cathryn Still, the executive director of ELPA21, said in a statement provided to Education Week.

Advocates Push Officials to Tell Parents They Can Opt Out

While advocates in Colorado and Florida are pushing for a reprieve, many of the remaining states in the WIDA consortium will forge ahead with in-person testing, allowing for flexibility in the testing schedule by either delaying the start of testing or extending the period where students can take the exam. Testing has already begun in Montana and Department of Defense schools.

In response to concerns about health-and-safety protocols, WIDA developed guidelines on how to administer the ACCESS tests during the pandemic. While having data to gauge how students progressed or regressed is valuable, Cook acknowledged that requiring students to return to class does carry risks.

In Colorado and Florida, advocates are asking the states to communicate to parents that they can opt their children out of taking the test. While the state could face penalties for not offering the test, students cannot be punished for skipping the test.

Advocates asked in their letter to Florida state Education Commissioner Richard Corcoran to inform parents that “those students who elect not to take the tests will not be disciplined, punished, or otherwise sanctioned for opting out of the tests.”

Illinois is among the states that pushed back the start of testing in response to community concerns. The state’s Board of Education this week announced plans to delay the opening of its spring assessment window, ensuring that no students will take a federally required assessment, including ACCESS, until mid-March at the earliest. In previous years, the state testing window for ACCESS typically ran from mid-January through mid-February.

California, home to about 1.1 million English-learners, will offer remote and in-person testing options for its annual English-proficiency exam, the English Language Proficiency Assessment for California, also known as ELPAC. Most of California’s 6 million public school students are still learning from home—and some school districts have not set a timeline to resume in-person instruction. More than 40 percent of public school students in the state speak a language other than English at home.

California, home to about 1.1 million English-learners, will offer remote and in-person testing options for its annual English-proficiency exam, the English Language Proficiency Assessment for California, also known as ELPAC. Most of California’s 6 million public school students are still learning from home—and some school districts have not set a timeline to resume in-person instruction. More than 40 percent of public school students in the state speak a language other than English at home.

Like California, the states of Arizona, Texas, and New York develop and administer their own English-proficiency exams. Officials there did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

What did we learn? Gloria Ladson-Billings is not excited about ‘going back to normal’

December 28, 2020   |   By Yvonne Kim, The Cap Times

From The Cap Times

In April, Indian novelist Arundhati Roy published a series of essays, including one titled “The pandemic is a portal.”

“Nothing could be worse than a return to normality,” Roy wrote in Azadi: Freedom. Fascism. Fiction. “Historically, pandemics have forced humans to break with the past and imagine their world anew. This one is no different. It is a portal, a gateway between one world and the next.”

This idea has been the year’s biggest takeaway for Gloria Ladson-Billings, University of Wisconsin-Madison professor emeritus, author and education researcher. The COVID-19 pandemic is a portal, she said, for educators in Madison and across the country to rethink how they teach.

Ladson-Billings’ year has been busy, from hosting virtual talks and professional development sessions to a podcast training educators in Scotland. This fall, she was named one of ten distinguished Hagler Fellows at Texas A&M University, where she eventually hopes to conduct research in person.

But much of her focus has remained local, as she collaborated with Mt. Zion Baptist Church on two projects to keep students engaged after the Madison Metropolitan School District switched to virtual learning.

“I’m not excited about ‘going back to normal,’ because normal was the place where all the failures were for the kids I’m concerned about,” Ladson-Billings said. “Going back to normal means going back to the lowest reading group, high rates of suspension, dropping out of school. I don’t want to do any of that.”

During the summer, she helped launch S²MARTLY in the Park, where educators held outdoor classes at Penn Park three mornings a week to help primarily Black students avoid a “summer slide.” Though the program included STEM-focused activities and lessons about prominent African Americans, Ladson-Billings said she was more concerned about students’ social and emotional needs.

“Kids are missing their peers. They’re missing interaction,” she said.

S²MARTLY in the Park then drew Ladson-Billings to a project to help local educators continue engaging students into colder weather. The School Without Walls program launched in September with about 50 students — five distanced classrooms of 10 students each — bringing their remote learning devices during school hours and receiving help from instructors.

Ladson-Billings is excited about technology, which she said will continue playing a bigger role in making sure students don’t go back to “normal.” Not only are parents more involved with their children’s education than she expected during the pandemic, but Ladson-Billings said students are adapting well, too. She recalled a conversation about online learning with a student in Baltimore, when she was surprised to hear him say, “Oh, I absolutely love it.”

“He says, ‘Well, you know, when the teacher gets on my nerves, I just turn her off. Then if she calls and asks where did you go?, I just say I had connectivity problems,’” Ladson-Billings said, laughing. “What that said to me is that here’s an environment where kids are taking control of their own learning. They don’t have that in face-to-face school; they just need to put up with stuff.”

Ladson-Billings analogizes the current state of education to a digital device: “When they stop working the way we want them to, they have to get reset.” One urgent step, she said, is rethinking the national approach to assessment and testing, which she discussed just this month on a three-hour Zoom call with the National Academy of Education.

“They’re all saying we don’t think we’re going to just do the same stuff we’ve been doing. We’re going to think differently about what it means to test kids,” Ladson-Billings said. “Education, schooling, has to get engaged in a hard reset … This is an opportunity and I just hope we don’t squander it.”

Wisconsin sees 9,600-student increase in homeschooling

December 28, 2020   |   By Scott Girard, The Cap Times

From The Cap Times

The number of students homeschooling this year rose by more than 9,600 after two consecutive years of growth in the hundreds.

The uptick to 26,641 homeschooled students comes as no surprise amid the challenges the COVID-19 pandemic has created for education, including some districts remaining entirely virtual while others are entirely in-person.

Applications to homeschool had to be filed with the state Department of Public Instruction by Oct. 15, but the state was waiting to release the data until it also had final numbers from private schools “to get a complete picture,” DPI spokesperson Chris Bucher wrote in an email. But because of an update in how private schools report their enrollment, that data is not yet complete.

The delay means there are still unknowns about how many students are “missing” from the system, with a public school enrollment drop of more than 35,000 students to 818,922.

“We hope to have the private school enrollment information collected and finalized within the next several weeks,” Bucher wrote.

Other states have found thousands of students who did not enroll in public school nor any other form of schooling for the year, raising equity concerns. Earlier this summer, indications of a rise concerned Madeline Hafner, an associate scientist with the Wisconsin Center for Education Research, for the long-term consequences for public schools.

“As a parent, we all need to keep remembering we will get through this pandemic and it’s not about accumulating the most academic gain or even a typical academic gain,” she said in August. “It’s not a typical year, nothing is typical.

“It’s about keeping our social lives, our emotional lives intact. If we don’t keep supporting one another, one of the ways our communities support each other is through public schooling … if we don’t keep our eye on that prize I worry about what we will look like in a year.”

It’s also a concern for school district leaders worried about funding, as enrollment is a factor in the yearly allocation of state aid and a district’s revenue limit.

While the state’s largest districts saw the biggest increases by count, some smaller districts experienced major jumps by percentage. Whitefish Bay, for example, went from seven students in 2019-20 to 69 in 2020-21. The Merton Community School District had a 400% increase, from six to 30.

In Madison, which saw a more-than-1,000-student drop in enrollment, the number of students being homeschooled grew by 52% from last school year, 358 to 545. Nearby, the Verona Area School District saw its homeschooling population double from 52 to 104 and the Middleton-Cross Plains Area School District grew from 73 to 168.

The Kenosha (273 to 545), Racine (383 to 530) and Oshkosh (162 to 359) school districts also experienced large increases.

Madison School District and UW-Madison team up to tackle literacy inequality

December 15, 2020   |   By Elizabeth Beyer, Wisconsin State Journal

From Wisconsin State Journal

The Madison School District and the UW-Madison School of Education announced Monday the formation of a joint early literacy task force to analyze teaching methods for reading and make recommendations to the district to reduce achievement gaps.

The goal of the task force is to use literacy as a strategy to make sure all district students receive quality grade-level instruction.

Madison Superintendent Carlton Jenkins said “reading wars” — a reference to a decades-old academic dispute over how best to teach phonics and reading — have been going on for years in the district, but now is the perfect time, amid the pandemic as well as the racial justice movement and following two successful district referendums, to begin to think about how the district can better support and educate all students.

“This is going to be our way of living up to those referendum promises we made in terms of trying to give all of our children the highest quality of education,” Jenkins said. “There have been some historical wrongs for African American children, for Latinx children, poor children, ELL children, special needs children” in regard to early literacy in public education.

“Right now is the time to do it. We’ve changed not only here in Madison but in the country and around the world in saying that we must make sure we remove any racist ideology about who can and who can’t have access to reading,” he said. “This is a fundamental right to every person, every child, and every adult to be able to read.”

The district has regularly met few expectations set by the state Department of Public Instruction in English language arts achievement. More than half of students in the district were considered below proficient in English language arts over the past three school years, according to DPI data. Only about 11% of black students, while more than 61% of white students score proficient or better.

The first meeting of the task force is slated for January. The district and UW-Madison hope to have recommendations from the group by June .

The task force plans to:

  • Analyze how the district currently teaches literacy, particularly early literacy, as well as data related to the effectiveness of the current teaching model.
  • Analyze the teaching methods of future instructors at UW-Madison’s School of Education in regard to literacy, with a focus on early literacy.
  • Review evidence-based, effective models to teach reading across all grade levels, and determine how to incorporate the models into teacher training.
  • Make recommendations to the district and the UW-Madison School of Education on how to implement steps to strengthen literacy in Madison schools as well as the School of Education.

The task force is a diverse group composed of 16 UW-Madison and district educators, administrators and community members who will explore best practices and research in teaching early literacy while focusing on anti-racist practices.

“We will get to work right away analyzing those recommendations and working together with the district so as they’re making changes in how they’re teaching reading, we’ll be making changes in how we prepare future educators,” UW-Madison School of Education Dean Diana Hess said.

At the beginning of the year, DPI made a rare statement on how teachers across the state should teach children to read, saying phonics should be used in an “explicit and systemic” manner after remaining largely silent on the decades-long debate. Their statement came amid widespread calls for the state agency to step in as Wisconsin maintains its reputation as the state with the worst disparity in reading scores between black and white students nationwide.

We are Listening! RERIC partners with rural Wisconsin

December 11, 2020   |   By Lynn Armitage, Wisconsin School News (Wisconsin Association of School Boards)

Wisconsin Association of School Boards

View the pdf to see the article.

Madison School District should improve communication between 4K, kindergarten teachers, report finds

October 29, 2020   |   By Scott Girard

From The Cap Times

Better communication between 4-year-old kindergarten teachers and their 5-year-old kindergarten counterparts in the Madison Metropolitan School District could improve student outcomes in transitioning to kindergarten, a new report found.

A Madison Education Partnership research brief released this month outlines some of the challenges facing teachers during student transitions from 4K to elementary school and offers a host of recommendations to improve.

The district has 56 4K sites at a mix of school buildings, early care and education centers and Head Start programs around the city. Those sites feed the 26 elementary schools, providing a mix of relationships between staff at the two levels and limiting what information is normally shared as a student moves from one level to the next.

“It really blatantly shows some of the issues with a large school district and the difficulties with coordinating 56 sites of 4K across 26 elementary schools,” MMSD director of early learning Culleen Witthuhn said. “The dynamic of kids moving from one place to another is really, really clear when we talked about this transition report. We have some things in place, but I just don’t feel like that’s enough.”

Researchers spoke with 20 kindergarten teachers at six school sites and 13 4K teachers at seven sites in January and February to collect feedback on a variety of questions. It showed a lack of understanding from teachers in 4K and 5K at what their counterparts taught in the classroom, disagreements over what information would be most important to share and a lack of trust in how other teachers would use sensitive information.

Beth Graue, one of three authors of the research brief, said “4K and 5K still tend to operate in parallel lanes.”

“We aren’t taking advantage of the deep knowledge that could be shared across 4K and 5K, so people aren’t learning how to best support kids and families,” Graue said. “That doesn’t mean that great things aren’t happening, it means that I think we need to be more intentional in the way we set up equal opportunities for sharing information.”

Witthuhn agreed that it was important to learn from the research and come up with some sort of document to facilitate communication between 4K and 5K teachers.

“It’s not like the 4K and 5K teachers are right next door,” Witthuhn said. “You can’t do those techniques when you’re across so many sites. This research study, and then the creation of some type of transitional document that we would be able to… implement across the district in order to be able to share that information, is so important.”

The study found that 4K teachers located at elementary school sites generally had better relationships with their 5K colleagues and the information shared between the two was often deeper.

“In all the sites where 4K/5K shared the school, teachers spoke about the important relationships they developed with each other and their frequent informal conversations about children and families they knew would be staying with the school for the upcoming year,” the brief states. “5K teachers in various schools discussed how these partnerships were important in helping them connect with students and families, and better understand the 4K experience.”

Those 4K teachers at off-site locations, however, had a much different experience, with the brief saying they reported “little to no communication with MMSD 5K teachers, although many of them discussed their wishes to connect.”

The study recommended creating a “prototype” for sharing information about students, but stressed that even with a report of some kind, “4K and 5K teachers should engage in more interactions and opportunities to build trust and share sensitive information appropriately.”

“If the district chooses to provide opportunities for teachers to spend time with one another, it also will need to address the issue of compensation,” the report noted.

Another sticking point between teachers at the two levels was how to handle sensitive information. Some 4K teachers were hesitant to share some details about family background or health issues, as they worried about violating privacy laws. Some 5K teachers, meanwhile, said they did not want information that could create a bias in their mind before they got to know a student — even if it would inform their interactions with a student in the classroom or a family outside the school building.

Graue said those teachers should instead seek that information, while verifying it themselves as they observed the student in their own classroom.

“To me that’s like a doctor saying, ‘I don’t want to see your file, I’m going to diagnose you in this time we have in this office,’” she said. “I think that’s short-sighted.”

Witthuhn added that it’s important for 4K and 5K teachers to understand what lessons the other is teaching, especially the importance of play-based learning for young students. She’s hopeful that one lesson from the pandemic has been the importance of social-emotional learning, which is a focus at the 4K level while the 5K level is perceived as “very academic.”

“Get us back on the same page about this trajectory of 4K to 5K to first-grade, even second-grade,” she said. “When we talk about early education, it’s about birth through third-grade, it’s about how are we engaging students with all of their learning that they’re doing in order to keep them wanting to learn?”

Graue is hopeful that methods like teachers visiting students’ homes can expand and allow teachers to know their students and families better as the year begins.

“I think teachers are very used to using the (Ready, Set, Go conferences) as a telling, describing what the kindergarten was like … but it’s more about acclimating the family to the experiences of kindergarten,” she said. “What the home visit did was it asked teachers to use that first visit as a listening experience.”

While they evaluate the lessons from this report, Witthuhn and Graue are both appreciative of the relationship between MMSD and UW-Madison's Wisconsin Center for Education Research, which partner to form MEP.

“We wouldn’t have that information to improve what we’re doing if we didn’t have that partnership,” Witthuhn said. “Then the district can take that information and say, 'how can we incorporate this into our day-to-day positions, careers, jobs to improve what we’re doing for students and families?'”

Americans with lower education levels suffer more pain than people with more education

October 29, 2020   |   By JEFF RENAUD, Western News

From Western News

Americans with university degrees or higher level of education endure substantially less pain than those who are less educated, according to an international study led by Western University.

With more than half of U.S. adults reporting chronic pain, the study will help health-care professionals and policymakers better target relief, the researchers said.

“Pain affects quality of life of individuals and their families,” said Western sociology professor Anna Zajacova. “It is an incredibly important health condition that we must try to understand better. And like many other seemingly personal issues, there are powerful social forces driving pain in society. Education is one of those forces.”

Using data from the 2010-2017 U.S. National Health Interview Survey, researchers found that half of Americans aged 30 to 49 report pain in at least one of five key sites in the body – the lower back, joints, neck, face/jaw, or headache/migraine.

But when exploring the educational levels of those hurting, more education did not always mean less pain: One important exception was the strikingly high amounts of pain reported by Americans with an incomplete college education or with a GED (a high-school-equivalency certification for adults who dropped out of high school). A second exception was that Hispanic adults don’t have this educational pain “penalty” within the context of this study.

Adults with a GED reported the highest level of pain (61.8 per cent), followed by those with some college (56.4 per cent), vocational/associate degrees (53.3 per cent), high-school dropouts with no credentials (51.5 per cent), and high-school graduates (50.9 per cent). Adults with a university degree reported considerably lower prevalence of pain (45 per cent among BA recipients and 43.9 per cent among those with an advanced degree).

Previously ignored by population-health research, pain has recently emerged as a key area of study due to its outsized impact on individuals, families and economies around the world.

“In pain we are talking about an incredibly important indicator of health,” Zajacova said. “As the number one reason we go to the doctor, chronic pain afflicts more people than heart disease, diabetes and cancer combined.”

The financial costs of pain are huge – economists estimated that $100-billion worth of productivity is lost each year in the United States alone.

While the reasons behind the high-school/college dropout anomalies are complex and largely unknown, Zajacova said these two groups have proven to be the exception in other health characteristics as well.

“It could be psychological characteristics we couldn’t capture,” she said. “Maybe it is a combination of dashed hopes. Maybe it is feeling stigmatized for being a high-school or college dropout. But this is largely speculation. We don’t yet know why they have more pain than would be expected, but it signals an area of further study.”

The research also highlights the need for further investigation into the causes of these complex inequities in chronic pain among US adults.

The study, The Relationship Between Education and Pain Among Adults Aged 30-49 in the United States, was published in a recent edition of The Journal of Pain.

Zajacova was co-author along with Richard G. Rogers of the University of Colorado Boulder, Eric Grodsky of the University of Wisconsin Madison and Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk of the University at Buffalo/State University of New York.

Wisconsin Partnership Program awards $6 million in community impact grants to health equity programs

October 16, 2020

From UW School of Medicine and Public Health

The Wisconsin Partnership Program at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health has announced its 2020 Community Impact Grant awards for initiatives that aim to advance health equity and improve health and well-being throughout Wisconsin.

Initiatives that address the health of Black men and women, prevent suicide among Wisconsin farmers and promote economic stability and restorative justice are among the six award recipients.

Grants of $1 million each, over five years, support community-academic partnerships designed to improve health outcomes by addressing the social determinants that influence health and well-being over the course of a lifetime.

“The award recipients address issues that are key to our societal well-being: health disparities, including those directly worsened by COVID-19, and the impact of racism on health,” said Amy Kind, MD, PhD, chair of Wisconsin Partnership Program’s Oversight and Advisory Committee. “By addressing the building blocks of health—including social connection, employment, economic stability and access to care—these initiatives have the potential to forge new and innovative paths that dismantle barriers to achieving health.”

The grants were awarded by the Oversight and Advisory Committee, following a multi-stage competitive application and review process.

2020 Wisconsin Partnership Program Community Impact Grant recipients

Economic Justice Institute, Inc. (UW-Madison Law School), Legal Interventions for Transforming Wisconsin (LIFT Wisconsin) (LIFT Racine) (LIFT Dane): Advancing Health Equity Through Legal Interventions for Low-Income Wisconsinites

The goal of this initiative is to improve population health by reducing health problems that are fueled by civil legal injustices. The initiative’s approach combines technology and community-based programming to address legal problems that are barriers to employment, economic stability and health and well-being.

Civic legal issues like child support, consumer and medical debt and evictions, influence economic and employment stability, housing access and poverty, and chronic stress, and impact families and individuals who often don’t have the resources to address these issues effectively. This grant team aims to transform the legal aid system, court procedures and the policy environment through community-driven policy and a technology response to make legal services more accessible to Black, Indigenous and People of Color in Dane County (LIFT Dane), Racine County (LIFT Racine) and statewide (LIFT Wisconsin). By addressing issues that can be resolved with a legal intervention, through a system that is modern and accessible, this initiative will work to improve health and well-being for people throughout the state.

Academic partners: The Center for Patient Partnerships, UW-Madison Institute for Research on Poverty

Foundation for Black Women’s Wellness: Accelerating Health Equity for Black Women in Wisconsin

Through the creation of the Well Black Women Institute (WBWI), the Foundation for Black Women’s Wellness will connect, train and empower Black women to reshape the conditions in which they live, work and play. Through this Institute, the Foundation will prepare women as health equity leaders to address the persistent health and birth outcome disparities plaguing Black women in Wisconsin.

In Wisconsin, Black women face higher death rates, lower life expectancy and some of the highest rates of infant mortality. Black families experience chronic stress caused by systemic racism and economic instability. These health challenges have been further exacerbated by COVID-19 and racial unrest. The WBWI will harness the talent and experience of Black women and provide them with the tools and training to become systems change leaders who can inform and promote policies and solutions to change how Black women experience health and well-being.

Academic partner: Population Health Institute

McFarland School District: Supporting Social Emotional Health in K-12 African American Students

This project is designed to make a substantial and long-lasting impact on the social emotional health of African American/Black students enrolled in the McFarland School District both now and into the future. While McFarland consistently ranks high among districts academically, their African American/Black students are not meeting critical health indicators as compared to their White counterparts. To address these disparities, this initiative will implement and expand the Natural Circles of Support program, in close partnership with student, school leaders, teachers, and families to change the conditions that perpetuate racial disparities and create a learning environment that ensures equity.

The project, with plans to expand beyond McFarland, will work to increase engagement and belonging, expand equity and improve teacher support and relationships with Black students to create conditions that support all students’ ability to reach their full potential.

Academic partner: Wisconsin Center for Education Research

Rebalanced Life Wellness Association and the Urban League of Greater Madison: Black Men’s Mental Health and Well-Being

This initiative, designed for and by Black men, aims to improve the mental-emotional health and well-being of Black men in Southeastern Wisconsin in order to achieve higher quality of life and longevity.

In Wisconsin, African American men have a life expectancy seven years shorter than white men and are more likely to report serious psychological stress and feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness. Black men face health equity issues including low mental health literacy and education, stigma around mental health problems and lack of access to mental health support services. Their stress has been further heightened by the dual crises of COVID-19 and racial injustice. The initiative will normalize and destigmatize mental health issues in the Black community, improve access to mental health supports and help men address the historical and current health inequities they are experiencing.

Academic partners: UW-Madison School of Human Ecology; University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, UW School of Medicine and Pubic Health

Southwestern Wisconsin Community Action Program: Addressing Stressors, Preventing Farmer Suicide: Social Connectedness and Health

With this grant, the Southwestern Wisconsin Community Action Program will address the urgent mental health needs of Wisconsin farmers and work to reduce suicide risk in this population by developing a comprehensive range of interventions to create a system of support designed to foster farmer resilience. The grantee will work to strengthen the social connections in rural communities, educate farmers about farm diversification and financial stabilization and work to make mental health services more accessible and acceptable for farmers and their families.

In Wisconsin, farmers, families and farmworkers face health inequities due to challenges in rural communities including lack of healthcare providers and services, lack of insurance and often a stigma around mental health issues. Stressors like farm foreclosures, weather events, supply chain breaks and the COVID-19 pandemic threaten their health and well-being. This work responds to the mental health crisis facing farmers, and to their growing awareness and willingness to seek support and help from trusted resources within their farming communities.

Academic partners: UW-Madison College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, UW-Madison Division of Extension; Center for Community and Nonprofit Studies

YWCA Madison and Wisconsin Department of Corrections: Building Tech Skills, Opportunities, Health and Wellness for Returning Citizens

This grant aims to support citizens returning to their communities post-incarceration by providing technology skills, employment training and networking opportunities critical for achieving economic stability while fostering healing and dignity. Investing in individuals to create positive change in their lives and the lives of their families is at the heart of this effort. Providing access to long-term earning potential and career growth opportunities while addressing the diversity gap in the tech industry by helping to provide qualified candidates to area employers is a critical component of this grant.

According to, men and women with a history of incarceration are worse in mental and physical health than the general population. The added hardship and adversity created by COVID-19 and the country’s health crisis of racism adds to their health challenges. This grant will work to improve health and health equity for returning citizens by providing support as they transition to life back in their communities. The initiative will engage returning citizens in the YWeb training program, and incorporate restorative justice into its approach and process, to help support and heal individuals and families.

Academic partner: Center for Community and NonProfit Studies

“COVID has shown us that the challenges we face go far beyond what the health sector or academia can address alone. These challenges require inclusive partnerships that depend on leadership and action at the community-level. As a longstanding member of the OAC, I have seen firsthand the value of community experience and engagement,” said Katherine Marks, OAC’s representative for urban health. “I look forward to seeing these partnerships progress over the next five years.”

“Since its inception, the Wisconsin Partnership Program has been committed to reducing health disparities,” said Kind. “This year’s awards recognize leadership from across our state’s communities. By supporting these teams and listening to their ideas, we can continue to make strides toward advancing health equity and resolving the health disparities facing our state.”

Cap Times Idea Fest: COVID-19 is a chance to reimagine education, panelists say

October 14, 2020   |   By Ben Farrell, Special to the Cap Times

From The Cap Times

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, residents of Dane County, like all Americans, have been forced to rethink how they carry out even their most routine daily tasks. Nowhere has the transition from pre- to post-pandemic existence been felt more acutely than in schools. Since schools went online due to COVID-19 in March, parents, students and teachers have been left to improvise in an environment nobody saw coming. At a recent Cap Times Idea Fest session, education reporter Scott Girard led a panel discussion with three Dane County educators to consider a question looming in the minds of many: How will the next few months shape the future of education, even after pandemic restrictions are lifted?

Panelists Gloria Ladson-Billings, a retired University of Wisconsin-Madison education professor who taught for 26 years and is now the National Academy of Education president; Carlton Jenkins, the newly hired Madison Metropolitan School District superintendent, and Mary Lee McKenzie, an educator at Clark Community School in Middleton shared their insights on how the crisis can — and perhaps should — lead to a drastic reimagining of what education looks like. Even in the pre-pandemic landscape, educational equity, and how best to provide it, have been a massive issue in Madison. According to the 2013 Race to Equity Report, Dane County has one of the largest achievement gaps between students of color and their white peers in the nation. This theme of progress toward a more equitable vision of education underscored the entire discussion.

From the outset of the conversation, one major point became clear: nothing of the past seven months has been easy, for students or for teachers. McKenzie described in stark terms the unique nature of the transition to online schooling.
“There’s nothing about this where I’ve been like, ‘Oh, this really makes my life easy,’” she said. “At the same time, the amount of growth and learning we’ve been able to do as a staff has been incredible.”

McKenzie also mentioned that while this experience has been taxing for both students and teachers, her school district is positioning itself to make “some bigger changes down the road.”

Jenkins, who was superintendent of the Robbinsdale Area School District in Minnesota before taking the helm of Madison schools in July, sees potential for improving education through strengthening ties with the community. Jenkins stressed the need for an open dialogue between families and schools. “We need to do a better job of trying to engage not only the children, but the families,” he said. “This went from just totally child-centered to the whole family, whole community. COVID-19 made us pause and say, ‘Let’s check on the socioemotional well being, the mental health aspect.’” Jenkins also emphasized that these changes of perspective are applicable to life beyond the pandemic.

“The hierarchy that we’ve known must be flipped upon its head right now. That has not even worked during the traditional, (in-person school) for all children ,” he said. “We’re working on having additional communication for students who have been most marginalized prior to COVID and now during COVID.”

Ladson-Billings agreed with the other panelists, and went into greater detail about what these pedagogical adjustments could look like. “I think that we’re having a totally different relationship with our IT departments,” she said. “They’ve moved to the center, which is the way it should’ve been… I think we’re learning a lot of how to improve education as a result of this.”

Later on in the conversation, Ladson-Billings brought up the idea of an educational “hard reset,” as one does with a faulty smartphone. “When they give you that phone back, all your contacts are going to be gone, all your pictures are going to be gone,” she said. “You’re going to have a phone like it was when it came from the factory.” That said, Ladson-Billings isn’t advocating a return to pre-pandemic “normal.” “Normal, for the kids I’m most concerned about, was a disaster,” she said. “Normal was they weren’t reading. Normal was they were being suspended at a disproportionate rate… Normal was they were being expelled.”

Quoting novelist Arundhati Roy, she cast the pandemic as a “portal” through which the currently broken American educational system might travel to find repair. She also cited former Chicago Mayor Rahm Emmanuel’s famous statement that you should “never allow a good crisis to go to waste.”

“We’ve got a good crisis here,” she said, “We need to take advantage of it.”

McKenzie, echoing those sentiments, expressed her support for a rehaul in the structure of education in Dane County. “This is a massive shift, to shift away from what we’ve been doing, to what we can do,” she said.

Savvas Learning Company Launches Culturally Responsive Learning Initiative

September 24, 2020   |   By Savvas Learning Company

From Cision PR Newswire

Savvas Learning Company, a next-generation learning solutions provider for K-12 education, is proud to announce the launch of its Culturally Responsive Learning (CRL) Initiative that will focus on supporting teachers in making real changes in their classroom practices to foster student voice and improve achievement as well as using curriculum that opens minds and allows students to see themselves reflected in what they learn.

Building on the national movement for social justice, the Savvas CRL Initiative seeks to cultivate a more inclusive culture at Savvas that elevates different perspectives and increases diversity within its workforce, vendors, and editorial content. As part of its effort, Savvas is developing professional learning to support teachers in setting high expectations for all learners and creating classroom environments that welcome individual voices, provide safe spaces for challenging conversations, and promote student agency by empowering students with choices in how they learn.

“Culturally responsive learning is critical for increasing student engagement by encouraging student voice. We want our curriculum to be a tool to inspire that student voice in an authentic way, and to create opportunities for students to share their rich, cultural backgrounds,” said Bethlam Forsa, CEO of Savvas Learning Company. “As an extension of our core values of expanding equity and empathy, culturally responsive learning must be woven into everything we do at Savvas: from the curriculum we build and the professional learning we offer teachers, to the training we provide our employees, who are the heart and soul of our organization.”

To help guide Savvas in advancing culturally responsive learning within its products and services and throughout its organization, Forsa created a Culturally Responsive Learning Advisory Board comprised of prominent education scholars, researchers, former teachers, and advocates. This diverse group of experts brings a depth of knowledge and viewpoints on a wide range of culturally responsive topics. Its role is to provide insight and expertise that informs the efforts by Savvas to develop and deliver on culturally responsive learning through a holistic, research-based, and real-world approach. The board members include:

Cati V. de los Ríos, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of literacy, reading, and bi/multilingual education at the University of California, Berkeley, and a former ESL, Spanish, and ethnic studies public high school teacher in California and Massachusetts.

Gloria Ladson-Billings, Ph.D., a professor emerita at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is the original author on culturally responsive education and currently writes about culturally relevant pedagogy and critical race theory.

Ernest Morrell, Ph.D., is an award-winning literacy education scholar and the author of two core Savvas programs, myView Literacy™ and myPerspectives® English Language Arts.

Theresa Santos-Volpe is an LGBTQ+ family advocate and consultant, journalist, and children's book author with 28 years of educational publishing experience.

Kate Seltzer, Ph.D., is an assistant professor of sociolinguistics and ESL education at Rowan University, and a former New York City ELA teacher.

The Savvas CRL Initiative will impact all facets of the organization, including the design and development of its editorial content, the recruitment and professional development of its employees, the selection of its vendors, and the marketing of its products and services. As part of the initiative, Savvas and its advisory board have already begun a comprehensive review of the editorial guidelines used by Savvas across every educational discipline. Savvas will also provide training to its employees around diversity and inclusion.

Another key part of the Savvas CRL Initiative will be the creation of a scholarship program that annually will award five Black and Brown students a total of $50,000 each toward tuition for a four-year college degree. In addition to the financial support, Savvas will provide mentorship opportunities and career-planning workshops, as well as sponsor and facilitate internships inside and outside Savvas.

“Simply writing a check is not enough,” Forsa said. “We want to be able to help mentor these young scholars, who will come from some of the most marginalized and underserved populations in our society. We have a vested interest in helping these scholarship winners get the resources and skills they need to succeed in their careers and in life.”